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Microchip Dialysis of Protein Samples Using Laser-polymerized Nanoporous Membranes
Funding: DOE
Complex samples (e.g., cell extract) often require extensive cleanup or pretreatment before introduction to analysis channels in a miniaturized device. These pretreatment steps are often performed off-chip using large volumes of sample and other reagents, and hence often add substantially to the total analysis time and cost.

Dialysis, or size-based separation of species via selective diffusion through a semipermeable membrane, is a widely used technique for cleanup of biological samples. We have developed a technique for fabricating thin (4-14 micron) nanoporous polymer dialysis membranes within the channels of a glass microchip. UV laser-initiated polymerization is used for controlled placement of the dialysis membrane in a chip for cleanup of complex or dirty samples; this technique is rapid and inexpensive and increases the potential functionality of integrated microfluidic devices. The semipermeable membrane and fabrication technique can be used to control cell positioning and to extract a small molecular weight analyte of interest from a complex matrix, facilitating chemical analysis in general and cellular analysis in particular. Our work in this area includes development of patterned dialysis membranes patterned in-situ within microchips, their use for counterflow mass exchange, their use for protein concentration, and their use for positioning and lysing cells.

Publications and Presentations on Microchip Dialysis
Archival Publications
PDF version of Song, Singh, Kirby: Electrophoretic concentration of proteins at laser-patterned porous membranes

Song S, Singh AK, Kirby BJ
"Electrophoretic Concentration of Proteins at Laser-Patterned Porous Membranes," Analytical Chemistry 76:4589-4592 (2004). doi pdf text

PDF version of Song, Singh, Shepodd, Kirby: Microchip dialysis of proteins using in situ photopatterned nanoporous polymer membranes

Song S, Singh AK, Shepodd TJ, Kirby BJ
"Microchip dialysis of proteins using in situ photopatterned nanoporous polymer membranes", Analytical Chemistry 76:2367-2373 (2004). doi pdf text

PDF versino of Fintschenko, Kirby, Hasselbrink, Singh, Shepodd: Monolithic materials: miniature and microchip technologies

Fintschenko Y, Kirby BJ, Hasselbrink, Jr. EF, Singh AK, Shepodd TJ
"Monolithic Materials: Miniature and Microchip Technologies," in Monolithic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications Elsevier, Amsterdam (2003). pdf

Presentations and Other Publications
1-5 Nov 2009

Kondapalli S, Connelly JT, Baeumner AJ, Kirby BJ
"On-chip electrophoretic concentration of liposomes for antibody-based viral biosensors", MicroTAS 2009, Jeju, Korea.

3 Apr 2009

Kondapalli S , Connelly JT, Baeumner AJ, Kirby BJ
"Development and evaluation of pathogen concentrators and microbiosensors for on-site environmental water sampling", Cornell Engineering Research Conference, Ithaca, NY.

27 Oct 2008

Kondapalli S , Kirby BJ
"On-chip electrohporetic Concentration of Liposomes using Photopolymerized Nanoporous Membranes", NBTC Annual Symposium, Ithaca, NY.

6 Oct 2006

Kirby BJ
"Fabrication for design and control of micro/nanofluidic systems", University of Michigan Mechanical Engineering Seminar Series, Ann Arbor, MI.

21 Jun 2006

Kirby BJ
"Electrokinetics in fluid systems: Control of fields with multiscale geometric patterning", 2nd New York Complex Matter Workshop, Ithaca, NY.

12 Jan 2006

Kirby BJ
"Miniaturized devices for combinatorial chemistry and nanofluidic study", Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA.

9 Dec 2005

Kirby BJ
Kodak Research Laboratories, Rochester, NY.

10 Nov 2005

Kirby BJ
Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

27 Oct 2005

Kirby BJ
Dept. of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

18 Oct 2005

Kirby BJ
Nanobiotechnology Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

27 Sep 2005

Kirby BJ
Cornell Fluid Dynamics Seminar, Ithaca, NY.

25 July 2005

Kirby BJ
Gordon Research Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Microfluidics, Oxford, UK.

10 Feb 2005

Kirby BJ
APS March Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

10 Feb 2005

Kirby BJ
Johns Hopkins Mechanical Engineering Seminar Series, Baltimore, MD.

Oct 2004
PDF version of Song, Mela, van den Berg, Kirby: Microfluidic architectures for integrated cell lysis, lysate dialysis and cell stimulus

Song S, Mela P, van den Berg A, Kirby BJ
"Microfluidic architectures for integrated cell lysis, lysate dialysis and cell stimulus," in MicroTAS 2004, Kluwer Academic Publishers (2004). pdf

May 2004
PDF version of Song, Singh, Shepodd, Kirby: Fabrication and characterization of photopatterned polymer membranes for protein concentration and dialysis in microchips

Song S, Singh AK, Shepodd TJ, Kirby BJ
"Fabrication and characterization of photopatterned polymer membranes for protein concentration and dialysis in microchips," in Hilton Head MEMS Workshop 2004 (2004). pdf

Oct 2003
PDF version of Song, Shepodd, Singh, Kirby: Microchip-based dialysis of protein samples using photopatterned nanoporous membranes

Song S, Shepodd TJ, Singh AK, Kirby BJ
"Microchip-based dialysis of protein samples using photopatterned nanoporous membranes," in MicroTAS 2003, Kluwer Academic Publishers (2003). pdf

Oct 2002
PDF version of Kirby, Singh: In-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes in glass microchannels using laser-induced phase-separation polymerization

Kirby BJ, Singh AK
"In-situ Fabrication of Dialysis Membranes in Glass Microchannels Using Laser-induced Phase-separation Polymerization," in MicroTAS 2002, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 742-744 (2002). pdf

We use laser-microfabrication to make microscale polymer elements within etched microchannels, for use for microfluidic control or dialysis. A frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser is used to photopolymerize a liquid-phase solution of monomers, solvents, and photoinitiators. The structural, tribological, and chemical properties of the resulting solid polymer structure are controlled by the material precursors.
A nanoporous membrane (~20 microns thick) patterned at the intersection of two glass microchannels, which can be used for sample dialysis or protein concentration. A frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser is used to photopolymerize a zwitterionic polyacrylate from a primarily aqueous solvent mixture. The resulting membrane passes salts and other low-molecular weight species but does not allow protein transport.